Chuyển bộ gõ


Từ điển Việt Anh (Vietnamese English Dictionary)
lịch sử



noun
History
Vietnam's history from an early age is a national history characterised by uninterrupted struggles against foreign invaders. The Northern Kingdom's Domination lasted one thousand years. This was one of the fiercest trials and periods of hardship in Vietnam's history of national development of the different tribal peoples inhabiting Vietnamese soil. However, the Viet people managed to maintain their particular cultural identity. Such revolts which were led by Hai Bà Trưng (the two Trung ladies), Bà Triệu (Lady Trieu), and Lý Nam Đế and especially the historic victory at the Bạch Đằng river in 938, under the leadership of Ngô Quyền which finally led the Vietnamese people to a complete victory and they regained their national independence. National Construction and Defence for National Independence lasted about one thousand years (from the early 10th Century to the middle of the 19th Century). This period also witnessed several fierce struggles launched by the Vietnamese people against the northern aggressors. The wars of resistance included the battle against the Tống army in the 11th century, three separate wars against the invading Mongol army in the 13rd century, and the resistance against the Minh army in the 14th century. In the late 17th century, the Vietnamese feudal nation was faced with a social and economic crisis that led to an annexation of the country into two parts. However, the victory of the Tây Sơn revolt at the close of the 18th century reunified the country. In the first half of the 19th century, the Nguyễn dynasty continued to consolidate national unification. Yet, a prevailing conservative attitude among Nguyễn dynasty court officials allowed the country to drift into a period of stagnation and Vietnam eventually became a French colony. At present, the Vietnamese people are trying to develop their national economy in a very difficult situation mostly due to the dictatorship of the Vietnamese communist goverment. Now, let's have a chronological summary on Vietnamese history:
In the ancient times, Red River Civilization succeeded the native prehistoric cultures. At its apogee, the ancient Viet people's first nations (Văn Lang, Âu Lạc) appeared
Thời Bắc Thuộc (Period of Chinese domination) lasted 1117 years between 179BC and 938
Các quốc gia phong kiến độc lập (Independent feudal nations)
Nhà Ngô (Ngô Dynasty)
Nhà Đinh (Đinh Dynasty)
Nhà Tiền Lê (Pre-Lê Dynasty)
Nhà Hậu Lý (Post-Lý Dynasty)
Nhà Trần (Trần Dynasty)
Nhà Hậu Trần (Post-Trần Dynasty)
Nhà Hậu Lê (Post-Lê Dynasty)
Nhà Mạc (Mạc Dynasty)
Trịnh-Nguyễn Phân Tranh (Trịnh-Nguyễn conflicts)
Nhà Tây Sơn (Tây Sơn Dynasty)
Nhà Nguyễn (Nguyễn Dynasty)
Thời Cận Đại (Modern times)
Thời Hiện Đại (Present times)
Incontestably, Phong Trào Yêu Nước (Patriotic movements) always feature the heroic Vietnamese history. To have an overview of the Vietnamese culture, see also Các Nền Văn Hoá Ỗ Việt Nam
Restoration of cultural and historical monuments in Vietnam: Vietnam has 979 classified national monuments relics including 497 historical monuments, 440 ancient architectures (pagodas, temples and communal houses), 30 scenic places and 12 archaeological sites. Thirty years of war have inflicted serious damage on these monuments. Some have been almost completely destroyed like the old citadel at Quảng Trị in Central Vietnam. Others were heavily damaged such as many temples, pagodas, churches and other places of worship in northern Vietnam Nature has also taken its toll. Conservation work has been compounded by growing appropriation of public lands by people for house construction, especially in the towns The government has taken positive steps in recent years to restore some of the most significant historical relies like the old capital in Huế, central Vietnam, Cổ Loa Citadel, the first capital of Vietnam, the ancient capital of Hoa Lư in Nam Hà province, or the temples of the Hùng Kings, founders of the Vietnamese nation nearly 4,000 years ago. Conservationists are all interested in preserving original features. They have received helpful assistance in expertise from many countries, like Poland's assistance in the restoration of Chăm towers in Central Vietnam, assistance from UNESCO and Japan in the restoration of old Huế and Hội An and German assistance in the restoration of Bút Tháp Pagoda in Hà Bắc provincẹOne major problem is the destruction caused by termites to iron-wood pillars in temples and pagodas. Vietnamese restorers have found a solution by drawing upon the experience of builders in the past. A common method is either to fill hollowed-out pillars with concrete or to replace them with new ones. But both have their drawbacks. In the first case, the concrete would detach from the wood within a few years. In the latter case, the cost involved and the risk of collapse during the replacement would be high.To solve the problem, Vietnamese restorers have combined the use of traditional termite killers with the spraying of chemicals into the infested pillars. That would both kill the insects and prevent the growth of fungi. They can gnaw away each year from 0.2mm to.5mm of wood. But what is more damaging is that the humid secretion they leave on the surface will create the necessary environment for the development of fungi. This damage can be best seen at Keo Pagoda in Thái Bình province, 100 km southeast of Hà Nội, where several hundred iron-wood pillars have been virtually eaten up.=Recent years in Hà Nội have seen the restoration of many pagodas and temples thanks to contributions in money and manpower from the population Since 1991, the local authorities have spent dozens of millions of dong on repairing the Temple of Literature, the first national university where 82 stone stelas can be found on which the names of 1,234 laureates of successive examinations in the feudal times are recorded. Cost of the whole project is estimated at 12 billion dong, or about 1 million dollars.Work is also going on for the renovation of ancient constructions on and around the Gươm Lake in the centre of the capital city

[lịch sử]
history
Lịch sử nước Pháp
The history of France; French history
Thảm hoạ kinh hoàng nhất trong lịch sử hàng không
The worst disaster in aviation history/in the history of aviation
Lịch sử sẽ phán xét xem chúng ta đúng hay sai
History will tell whether we were right
historic; historical
Sự kiện / giờ phút lịch sử
Historic event/moment
Liệt kê các sự kiện theo trình tự lịch sử
To enumerate events in historical sequence
Vietnam's history from an early age is a national history characterised by uninterrupted struggles against foreign invaders. The Northern Kingdom's Domination lasted one thousand years. This was one of the fiercest trials and periods of hardship in Vietnam's history of national development of the different tribal peoples inhabiting Vietnamese soil. However, the Viet people managed to maintain their particular cultural identity. Such revolts which were led by Hai Bà Trưng (the two Trung ladies), Bà Triệu (Lady Trieu), and Lý Nam Đế and especially the historic victory at the Bạch Đằng river in 938, under the leadership of Ngô Quyền which finally led the Vietnamese people to a complete victory and they regained their national independence. National Construction and Defence for National Independence lasted about one thousand years (from the early 10th Century to the middle of the 19th Century). This period also witnessed several fierce struggles launched by the Vietnamese people against the northern aggressors. The wars of resistance included the battle against the Tống army in the 11th century, three separate wars against the invading Mongol army in the 13rd century, and the resistance against the Minh army in the 14th century. In the late 17th century, the Vietnamese feudal nation was faced with a social and economic crisis that led to an annexation of the country into two parts. However, the victory of the Tây Sơn revolt at the close of the 18th century reunified the country. In the first half of the 19th century, the Nguyễn dynasty continued to consolidate national unification. Yet, a prevailing conservative attitude among Nguyễn dynasty court officials allowed the country to drift into a period of stagnation and Vietnam eventually became a French colony. In 1930, the Communist Party of Vietnam was founded. The Party led the Vietnamese people to a revolutionary victory in August 1945. After that, there were two resistance wars against the old- and the neo-colonialist powers. The first resistance war ended with a resounding victory at Điện Biên Phủ in May 1954. The second resistance war came to an end following the historic Hồ Chí Minh military campaign which led to the great victory achieved in the spring of 1975. At present, the Vietnamese people are entering a new period of development known as the period of openness so as to develop their national economy and join the ranks of the developing countries. Now, let's have a chronological summary on Vietnamese history:

*In the ancient times, Red River Civilization succeeded the native prehistoric cultures. At its apogee, the ancient Viet people's first nations (Văn Lang, Âu Lạc) appeared.

*Thời Bắc Thuộc (Period of Chinese domination) lasted 1117 years between 179BC and 938.

*Các quốc gia phong kiến độc lập (Independent feudal nations):
- Nhà Ngô (Ngô Dynasty)
- Nhà Đinh (Đinh Dynasty)
- Nhà Tiền Lê (Pre-Lê Dynasty)
- Nhà Hậu Lý (Post-Lý Dynasty)
- Nhà Trần (Trần Dynasty)
- Nhà Hậu Trần (Post-Trần Dynasty)
- Nhà Hậu Lê (Post-Lê Dynasty)
- Nhà Mạc (Mạc Dynasty)
- Trịnh-Nguyễn Phân Tranh (Trịnh-Nguyễn conflicts)
- Nhà Tây Sơn (Tây Sơn Dynasty)
- Nhà Nguyễn (Nguyễn Dynasty)
*Thời Cận Đại (Modern times)
*Thời Hiện Đại (Present times)

Incontestably, Phong Trào Yêu Nước (Patriotic movements) always feature the heroic Vietnamese history. To have an overview of the Vietnamese culture, see also Các Nền Văn Hoá Ở Việt Nam.

*Restoration of cultural and historical monuments in Vietnam: Vietnam has 979 classified national monuments relics including 497 historical monuments, 440 ancient architectures (pagodas, temples and communal houses), 30 scenic places and 12 archaeological sites. Thirty years of war have inflicted serious damage on these monuments. Some have been almost completely destroyed like the old citadel at Quảng Trị in Central Vietnam. Others were heavily damaged such as many temples, pagodas, churches and other places of worship in northern Vietnam. Nature has also taken its toll. Conservation work has been compounded by growing appropriation of public lands by people for house construction, especially in the towns. The government has taken positive steps in recent years to restore some of the most significant historical relies like the old capital in Huế, central Vietnam, Cổ Loa Citadel, the first capital of Vietnam, the ancient capital of Hoa Lư in Nam Hà province, or the temples of the Hùng Kings, founders of the Vietnamese nation nearly 4,000 years ago. In 1990, the government spent 500 million dong on restoration. For this year, 800 million dong has been earmarked. Conservationists are all interested in preserving original features. They have received helpful assistance in expertise from many countries, like Poland's assistance in the restoration of Chăm towers in Central Vietnam, assistance from UNESCO and Japan in the restoration of old Huế and Hội An and German assistance in the restoration of Bút Tháp Pagoda in Hà Bắc province.
One major problem is the destruction caused by termites to iron-wood pillars in temples and pagodas. Vietnamese restorers have found a solution by drawing upon the experience of builders in the past. A common method is either to fill hollowed-out pillars with concrete or to replace them with new ones. But both have their drawbacks. In the first case, the concrete would detach from the wood within a few years. In the latter case, the cost involved and the risk of collapse during the replacement would be high.
To solve the problem, Vietnamese restorers have combined the use of traditional termite killers with the spraying of chemicals into the infested pillars. That would both kill the insects and prevent the growth of fungi. They can gnaw away each year from 0.2mm to 0.5mm of wood. But what is more damaging is that the humid secretion they leave on the surface will create the necessary environment for the development of fungi. This damage can be best seen at Keo Pagoda in Thái Bình province, 100 km southeast of Hà Nội, where several hundred iron-wood pillars have been virtually eaten up.
Recent years in Hà Nội have seen the restoration of many pagodas and temples thanks to contributions in money and manpower from the population. Since 1991, the local authorities have spent dozens of millions of dong on repairing the Temple of Literature, the first national university where 82 stone stelas can be found on which the names of 1,234 laureates of successive examinations in the feudal times are recorded. Cost of the whole project is estimated at 12 billion dong, or about 1 million dollars. Work is also going on for the renovation of ancient constructions on and around the Gươm Lake in the centre of the capital city. (VNS)



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