Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th|
dis·ease [disease diseases] BrE [dɪˈziːz] NAmE [dɪˈziːz] noun uncountable, countable
1. an illness affecting humans, animals or plants, often caused by infection
•heart/liver/kidney, etc. disease
•health measures to prevent the spread of disease
•an infectious/contagious disease (= one that can be passed to sb very easily)
• It is not known what causes the disease.
•protection against sexually transmitted diseases
• He suffers from a rare blood disease.
•A fatty diet increases the risk of heart disease.
•the problem of controlling pests and disease with organic gardening methods
2. countable (formal)something that is very wrong with people's attitudes, way of life or with society
•Greed is a disease of modern society.
Middle English (in the sense ‘lack of ease; inconvenience’): from Old French desaise ‘lack of ease’, from des- (expressing reversal) aise ‘ease’.
disease noun C, U
•He suffers from a rare blood disease.
illness • • sickness • • infection • • condition • • ailment • • complaint • |informal bug • • virus • |medical disorder •
a serious/chronic disease/illness/infection/condition/ailment/disorder
have/suffer from a/an disease/illness/sickness/infection/condition/ailment/complaint/bug/virus/disorder
diagnose/treat a/an disease/illness/infection/condition/ailment/virus/disorder
recover from a/an disease/illness/sickness/infection/bug/virus/disorder
Disease or illness? Disease is used to talk about more severe physical medical problems, especially those that affect the organs:
✗ heart/kidney/liver illness Illness is used to talk about most kinds of medical problems, including mental illness. Disease is not used about a period of illness:
•He died after a long illness.
✗ He died after a long disease.
catch a cold/an infectious disease/the flu/(BrE) flu/pneumonia/a virus/(informal) a bug
get (BrE) ill/(NAmE) sick/a disease/AIDS/breast cancer/a cold/the flu/(BrE) flu/a migraine
come down with a cold/the flu/(BrE) flu
contract a deadly disease/a serious illness/HIV/AIDS
be infected with a virus/a parasite/HIV
develop cancer/diabetes/a rash/an ulcer/symptoms of hepatitis
have a heart attack/a stroke
provoke/trigger/produce an allergic reaction
block/burst/rupture a blood vessel
damage/sever a nerve/an artery/a tendon
feel (BrE) ill/sick/nauseous/queasy
be running (BrE) a temperature/(NAmE) a fever
have a head cold/diabetes/heart disease/lung cancer/a headache/(BrE) a high temperature/(NAmE) a fever
suffer from asthma/malnutrition/frequent headaches/bouts of depression/a mental disorder
be laid up with/ (BrE) be in bed with a cold/the flu/(BrE) flu/a migraine
nurse a cold/a headache/a hangover
examine a patient
diagnose a condition/disease/disorder
be diagnosed with cancer/diabetes/schizophrenia
prescribe/be given/be on/take drugs/medicine/medication/pills/painkillers/antibiotics
treat sb for cancer/depression/shock
have/undergo an examination/an operation/surgery/a kidney transplant/therapy/chemotherapy/treatment for cancer
have/be given an injection/(BrE) a flu jab/(NAmE) a flu shot/a blood transfusion/a scan/an X-ray
cure a disease/an ailment/cancer/a headache/a patient
prevent the spread of disease/further outbreaks/damage to the lungs
be vaccinated against the flu/(BrE) flu/the measles/(BrE) measles/polio/smallpox
enhance/boost/confer/build immunity to a disease
illness • disorder • infection • condition • ailment • bug
These are all words for a medical problem.
disease • a medical problem affecting humans, animals or plants, often caused by infection: ▪ He suffers from a rare blood disease.
illness • a medical problem, or a period of suffering from one: ▪ She died after a long illness.
disease or illness?
Disease is used to talk about more severe physical medical problems, especially those that affect the organs. Illness is used to talk about both more severe and more minor medical problems, and those that affect mental health: heart/kidney/liver illness ◇ mental disease. Disease is not used about a period of illness: she died after a long disease
disorder • (rather formal) an illness that causes a part of the body to stop functioning correctly: ▪ a rare disorder of the liver.
A disorder is generally not infectious. Disorder is used most frequently with words relating to mental problems, for example psychiatric, personality, mental and eating. When it is used to talk about physical problems, it is most often used with blood, bowel and kidney, and these are commonly serious, severe or rare.
infection • an illness that is caused by bacteria or a virus and that affects one part of the body: ▪ a throat infection
condition • a medical problem that you have for a long time because it is not possible to cure it: ▪ a heart condition
ailment • (rather formal) an illness that is not very serious: ▪ childhood ailments
bug • (informal) an infectious illness that is usually fairly mild: ▪ a nasty flu bug
to have/suffer from a(n) disease/illness/disorder/infection/condition/ailment/bug
to catch/contract/get/pick up a(n) disease/illness/infection/bug
•Children are still dying in their millions from preventable diseases.
•Drugs can slow down the progression of the disease, but not cure it altogether.
•He has a serious lung disease.
•He suffered from coronary heart disease
•It's better to prevent disease by ensuring a clean water supply.
•She got a rare liver disease when she was only twenty.
•Such unhygienic practices spread disease.
•Sufferers from Alzheimer's disease can't cope at home.
•The disease has been eradicated from the world.
•The disease has killed 500 people so far this year.
•The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes.
•The government must take action to fight this deadly disease.
•They want to stop the disease from spreading.
•Tobacco lowers the body's resistance to disease.
•You can't catch the disease just from physical contact.
•a disease caused by a vitamin deficiency
•a disease of the digestive system
•childhood diseases such as mumps and chicken pox
•fears of a new killer disease
•fears of an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease
•measures to prevent the spread of the disease
•new drugs which help to control the disease
•patients suffering from venereal disease
•the number of people with this disease
•the overall incidence of disease in the world
•the risk of coronary heart disease
•the ticks that carry the disease
•He talked about controlling pests and disease with organic gardening methods.
•Measures have been taken to prevent the spread of disease.
•The problem was finally diagnosed as heart disease.
•This is an extremely infectious disease.
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